Toyota calls their teaching methodology – Toyota Job Instruction – Mercedes-Benz calls it their 4-Step Training method – Both of these were developed directly from the Training Within Industry (TWI) Program. TWI supported the U.S. war production effort during WW II and, despite great success, it was largely abandoned, yet, it provides a basis of Toyota’s core continuous improvement training. TWI had a direct impact on the development and use of kaizen and Standard Work at Toyota. These fundamental elements are embedded within the functional system at Toyota and Job Instruction (JI) is taught and used within Toyota today. The kaizen methodology is a direct descendant of Job Methods, and Job Relations had an impact on the development and function of the Team and Group Leader structure in Toyota. TWI follows the Deming PDCA style of the training programs and Deming lectures frequently included statements similar to the JR slogan, "People Must Be Treated As Individuals" and the Job Instructions’ mantra about failure being on the shoulders of the instructor.
This session will focus on the job instruction (JI) methodology Toyota uses to train inexperienced workers and get them "up to speed" faster. Jobs are broken down into concisely defined Important steps, which show the procedures while explaining the Key Points and the reasons for the Key Points. Then the student is observed, coached, and finally gradually weaned from the coaching. The course emphasized the credo, "If the worker hasn't learned, the instructor hasn't taught".
Also an overview of two other TWI modules will be presented:
1. Job Methods (JM) – teaches workers to objectively evaluate the efficiency of their jobs and to methodically evaluate and suggest improvements. Students are taught to analyze each step and determine if there were sufficient reasons to continue to do it in that way by asking a series of structured questions. If they determined some step could be done better by Eliminating, Combining, Rearranging, or Simplifying, they develop and apply the new method by selling it to the "boss" and co-workers, obtaining approval based on Safety, Quality, Quantity, and Cost, standardizing the new method, and giving "credit where credit is due."
2. Job Relations (JR) - a course that taught supervisors the foundations of positive employee relations and to deal with workers effectively and fairly. Developing and maintaining these good relationships prevents problems from arising and is paramount to earn loyalty and cooperation from others. When problems do arise, Job Relations teaches a proven method of getting the facts, weighing options, deciding, taking action, and checking results. It emphasized the lesson, "People Must Be Treated As Individuals"
In summary, TWI’s three programs work together to help supervisors:
• train workers to quickly remember how to perform jobs
• build and maintain positive employee relations where people are treated as individuals yet work together as a team
• create a productive workplace environment, where jobs are performed the standard way by all operators
• improve the ways in which jobs are done
• improve safety in the workplace
• ensure problem solving is embedded in daily work and structured improvement
• embrace a proven approach to sustain continuous improvement